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# Fine Tuning

## What is the Fine Tuning of the Universe?

From the Discovery Institute

“Fine-tuning” refers to various features of the universe that are necessary conditions for the existence of complex life. Such features include the initial conditions and “brute facts” of the universe as a whole, the laws of nature or the numerical constants present in those laws (such as the gravitational force constant), and local features of habitable planets (such as a planet’s distance from its host star).

The basic idea is that these features must fall within a very narrow range of possible values for chemical-based life to be possible.

## Does The Fine Tuning of the Universe Demonstrate the Existence of God?

J. Warner Wallace

## There is no way I can cover this topic here. It is too large, too technical, too detailed, too philosophically challenging, and too deep.

## I will do only my best to keep it on the level so that the premises and evidences can be displayed and verified.

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## This is not a scientific discussion.

## Science can only tell us that the universe is indeed fine tuned but cannot venture to tell us why. The question of why is a philosophical question

## (Mind Matters podcast w/ Dr. Daniel Díaz and Dr. Ola Hössjer)

## https://mindmatters.ai/podcast/ep153/

##

## Fine Tuning Explained by Comparison

Imagine a tornado hitting a junkyard. The tornado randomly assembles every piece of scrap in the junkyard into bicycles so there is no scrap or even a small piece of trash left on the yard but every little scrap of metal and rubber and plastic is assembled into a fully formed and functioning bicycle by the tornado. Now imagine this happens to every junkyard on the planet simultaneously.

This occurs without purpose or design.

Now lets imagine that this happens on May 13th at 1PM every year without fail. Not1:01PM or 12:59 PM but exactly at 1PM without fail all over the world in every junkyard all making these bicycles.

This is impossible of course, but this is exactly the same idea as only 2 of the 37+ fine tuned parameters occurring.

This universe was built on purpose.

## Scientific Notation Explained

Its simple, but very large and very small all at once.

## The Staggering Improbability of Fine-Tuned Parameters for Life and the Failure of Multiverse Explanations

By Otangelo Grasso

A comprehensive calculation has been performed to determine the overall probability of obtaining the precise conditions necessary for life to exist in the universe. This takes into account a staggering 507 distinct parameters across various domains, ranging from particle physics and cosmological constants to the specific characteristics of our solar system, Earth, and Moon. By meticulously incorporating all relevant factors and fine-tuned parameters, this calculation provides a perspective on the improbability of life arising by chance alone. This is a tour de force, an undertaking that sheds light on the enigma of our existence. The calculations themselves are evidence to the extraordinary precision required for life to flourish. The evidence stands as a resounding challenge to the notion that chance and blind randomness can account for the exquisite fine-tuning we observe in the universe.

1. Particle Physics Related: Particle Physics Parameters: Overall fine-tuning for particle physics = 1 in 10^111 Cosmological Constants: Overall fine-tuning for cosmological constants = 1 in 10^167

2. The odds of Fine-Tuned Fundamental Constants: 1 in 10^911

3. The odds of Fine-Tuned Fundamental Forces: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^130 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^200

4. The odds for the fine-tuning of the Initial Conditions of the universe: The upper bound probability (the highest probability): 1 in 10^270

5. The odds of Fine-tuning the Key Cosmic Parameters Influencing Structure Formation and Universal Dynamics: Calculation including the low-entropy state: 1 in 10^(10^123) Calculation excluding the low-entropy state: 1 in 10^258

6. The odds/probability for the fine-tuning of 10 inflationary parameters: : 1/10^745

7. The odds/probability for the fine-tuning of the Expansion and Structure Formation parameters: 1 in 10^390

8. The odds/probability for the fine-tuning of these 4 density parameters: The upper bound probability (the highest probability): 1 in 10^300

9. The odds/probability for the fine-tuning of these 6 dark energy parameters: 1 in 10^580

10. The odds/probability for fine-tuning of stable atoms: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^841 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^973

11. The odds/probability for fine-tuning of uranium: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^432 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^458

12. Fine-tuning for the Existence of Uranium and Other Heavy Elements: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds 1 in 10^1273 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^1431

13. Galactic and Cosmic Dynamics fine-tuning: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: = 1 in 10^445 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: = 1 in 10^665

14. Astronomical parameters for star formation: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: = 1 in 10^186 Upper bound/worst case overall odds:= 1 in 10^273

15. Fine-tuning odds Specific to the Milky Way Galaxy: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^445 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^665

16. Fine-tuning odds of our planetary system: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^589 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^769

17. Fine-tuning parameters of the Sun for a life-permitting Earth: Lower bound/most optimistic overall odds: 1 in 10^148 Upper bound/worst case overall odds: 1 in 10^162

18. The Fine-Tuned Parameters for Life on Earth: Overall odds of at least 158 parameters = 1 in 10^1786

19. Fine-tuning parameters related to having a moon that permits life on Earth: Overall odds = 1 in 10^388

1. Fundamental constants 15 parameters

2. Initial conditions 3 parameters

3. Key Cosmic Parameters Influencing Structure Formation and Universal Dynamics 8 parameters

4. Inflationary parameters 10 parameters

5. Expansion/structure formation 5 parameters

6. Density parameters 4 parameters

7. Dark energy 6 parameters

8. Parameters relevant for obtaining stable atoms 31 parameters

9. Heavy elements 15 parameters

11. Galactic/cosmic dynamics 80 parameters

12. Star formation 32 parameters

13. Milky Way 13 parameters

14. Planetary systems 90 parameters

15. Sun 17 parameters

16. Earth parameters 158 parameters

17. Earth-Moon odds 20 parameters

Total number summed up = 507 parameters. The total comes to 507 distinct parameters across various domains and scales that require precise fine-tuning for life and the universe as we know it to exist.

Overall odds lower bound (highest chance) = 1 in 10^(10^238)

Overall odds upper bound (Lowest chance) = 1 in 10^(10^243)

This incredibly small probability highlights just how remarkably finely tuned all of these parameters across different scales need to be for the universe and life to exist as we know it when considering the worst-case/upper-bound values. To illustrate just how astronomically lucky someone would have to be to randomly hit the "jackpot" of getting odds of 1 in 10^(10^243) purely by chance alone, here's an analogy: Imagine a universe filled with planets, where each planet is a vast desert made up of grains of sand. Now imagine marking a single grain of sand on just one of those desert planets. The odds of randomly picking that one marked grain from the entire universe of desert planets would be: 1 in (Number of planets) x (Number of grains of sand per planet) To get a scope of just how immense 10^(10^243) is, consider that the estimated number of atoms in the observable universe is around 10^80 to 10^92. Even if we generously imagine 10^100 planets, each with 10^100 grains of sand, that gives us a total of 10^200 grains across the whole universe. The odds of randomly picking the marked grain would then be 1 in 10^200. Incredibly small, but still infinitely larger than 1 in 10^(10^243). To match 10^(10^243), you'd need a universe with around 10^(10^243 - 200) = 10^(10^243) planets, each with 10^100 grains of sand. Randomly picking the marked grain from a universe at that scale by chance alone would be essentially an impossibility. It would be far, far, far smaller a probability than picking a specific particle from the entire observable universe. This analogy hopefully illustrates the true astronomical improbability and luck required to randomly "hit the jackpot" of the 1 in 10^(10^243) odds purely by chance, making it for all intents and purposes, an impossible occurrence through random luck alone in our universe. The fine-tuning required is so precise, it defies simple chance as an explanation.

Given the staggeringly small odds of 1 in 10^(10^243) for all the finely-tuned parameters to exist simultaneously even in the most pessimistic scenario, multiverse proposals offer little explanatory power in overcoming this improbability. The idea behind a multiverse is that our universe is just one of an incomprehensibly large, perhaps infinite, number of universes with different laws, constants, and properties. The claim is that simply by random chance in this vast multiverse, at least one universe like ours with the precisely tuned conditions for life would exist. However, the problem is that the odds listed above make it practically impossible for this to happen by chance, even with a multiverse of infinite size. Here's why: Even in the most pessimistic case, we're talking about odds of 1 in 10^(10^243). This number is so vast that it dwarfs estimates of the total number of atoms in the observable universe, which is around 10^80 to 10^92. Even an infinite multiverse may not overcome such minuscule odds. The odds listed encompass parameters at vastly different scales, from the subatomic level (fundamental constants) to the cosmic scale (expansion, structure formation). Getting all these finely-tuned across different scales simultaneously adds layers of improbability. In a truly random multiverse with no inherent bias, the odds of a life-permitting universe should be just as ludicrously small. The multiverse proposal doesn't explain any driving force for tuning constants so precisely for observers. Even if a life-permitting universe exists, the "measure problem" questions whether an observer like us is likely to exist in such a finely-tuned region when the overwhelmingly larger part of the multiverse may be observationally barren. While multiverses can't be ruled out completely, given the numbers involved, simply appealing to a multiverse doesn't seem to satisfactorily resolve the extreme fine-tuning problem. The odds stacked against a life-permitting universe arising by chance are too astronomically small, even with an infinite number of universes. This leaves open profound questions about whether some deeper principles or driving forces are responsible for the precise tuning observed across multiple domains - questions that simple chance and blind rote multiverse proposals seem unable to address adequately.

## 10^80

100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

This number is ten times bigger than 10^79th power.

This is approximately the number of inches in the universe from one side to the other.

This is the fine tuning of the gravity of the universe, if you move this by 1 inch the universe doesn't have enough or has too much gravity to form stars and planets and the can be no life.

## Many Worlds in One (New York: Hill and Wang, 2006), 176.

## FINE TUNING So if there is a creator and this creator is the cause of the universe then we now have to show this is observable. We can and do and the real trick is that it is not the creationists that discovered this at all but the agnostics and the atheists.

## Fred Hoyal (Atheist) said "A commonsense interpretation of the facts suggest that a super intellect has monkeyed with physics as well as chemistry and biology and there are no blind forces in nature".

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## Paul Davies (agnostic) said " There is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all, It seems to me that somebody has fine tuned natures numbers to make the universe, the impression of design is overwhelming".

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## the Alternative is this: "“Why does such fine-tuning occur? And the answer many physicists now believe: the multiverse. A vast number of universes may exist, with many different values of the amount of dark energy. Our particular hat containing zillions of universes, we happened to draw a universe that allowed life.” Alan Lightman

## Time

https://www.hawking.org.uk/in-words/lectures/the-beginning-of-time

Because of the 2nd law of thermodynamics coupled with observational data time had to have a begining.

## Noted Ph.D’s And Scientists Who Believe God Created The Universe

From Robert Clifton Robinson

Frequently, I have been asked by Atheists, skeptics of the Bible and those who dispute the existence of God, if I have any sources other than Theologians. It is a common error of assumption that intelligent people do not believe in God. It is imagined by the uninformed that only the uneducated and naive believe in a God who is both Creator and the source of all life. For this reason, I present to you a partial list of the thousands of noted prize-winning Scientists, Physicists, Chemists, Mathematicians, Cosmologists, and other academics who believe that God is the source of the universe.

It is important to note that although I do not personally share some of the Theological premises of many of these astute men and women, I do agree with many of the opinions expressed here regarding the essential issues of God’s existence. My intent, by the inclusion of this list, is to demonstrate that intelligent and highly educated people of science do believe in God as the source and purpose for the universe. All of the scientific scholars listed here came to the conclusion that God is the only intelligent answer for the source of the universe, after simply following the evidence.