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The Exodus from Egypt

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Egyptian History is written by the Victor

Egyptian history records are the ultimate in the adage "History is written by the victors" Pharaohs were required to be better than any previous Pharaoh and at times made sure they were more revered even removing entire histories from the walls of stone which the history had been written. Egyptologist all disagree to specific dates and even lineages of kings.  There is no consensus except that there is no consensus. 

"The current debate on Egyptian chronology is characterized by divergent opinions on the value of Maluthonian tradition, the lengths of reigns of individual Egyptian kings, the existence of coregenicies, and the astronomical evidence. In each of these categories there is little consensus and a wide range of possible solutions; a precise Egyptian chronology is therefore not possible."

As you explore this evidence remember that no dates can be considered perfect or can any time period be confirmed with exact accuracy. 

The Exodus from Egypt: Image

Exodus Decoded

Produced by James Cameron and Hosted by Simcha Jacobovici We go through the archeology and discover the facts of what archeology can tell us about the Exodus. 

Mr. Jacobovici awards for journalism.


The Exodus from Egypt: Video

Hebrews in Ancient Egypt

Below you will find three proofs of Hebrew people in Ancient Egypt.  The amount of evidence showing this is overwhelming, far too much to place here.  

Genesis 47 tells us that the first Israelites settled in Goshen near the city of Ramses. So we need to look and see if there are any Semetic settlements near the city of Ramses.  Here we have an Asiatic people being called the Hyksos and excavation in the Goshen area just south of the city of Ramses.  

"A number of excavations have revealed information about the gradual settling of Asiatic immigrants in the Delta under the Hyksos, a group of people who ruled for over a century during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (c.1650-1550 BC). The Hyksos forged a strong power base in the Northeast Delta, an area of great strategic importance for control of critical trade routes with the Near East and the Mediterranean by both land and sea. Tell el-Daba’a is also associated with Pi-Ramesses, the Delta residence of Ramesses II in the 19th Dynasty. 

 Syrian ‘Mittelsaal’ houses and a ‘Breitraum’ house give an indication of the origin of the inhabitants along with burials yielding foreign weaponry and donkey burials typical of contemporary Syrian traditions. With finds of distinctive Mbiia Levantine painted ware and jugs of Syrian types, such evidence shows interactions parallel to other late 12th Dynasty sites both in and outside Egypt"  

"The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian historian Manetho (flourished 300 BCE), who, according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (flourished 1st century CE), translated the word as “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds.” Josephus himself wished to demonstrate the great antiquity of the Jews and thus identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible. Hyksos was in fact probably an Egyptian term for “rulers of foreign lands” (heqa-khase), and it almost certainly designated the foreign dynasts rather than an ethnic group. Modern scholarship has identified most of the Hyksos kings’ names as Semitic". 

 "The Hyksos’ rise was reflected in Avaris, too. The city’s footprint nearly tripled, and at its height, the city was home to an estimated 25,000 people, spread out over a square mile of bustling, crowded, stinking cityscape. (Archaeologists have found neither plumbing nor toilets there.) “It was one of the largest cities in the ancient Near East, not just Egypt,” says Irene Forstner-Müller, an Austrian Institute of Archaeology researcher who took over the Tell el-Dab’a excavations in 2009 and used remote sensing to map Avaris’ unexcavated stretches. “The size of the town is amazing,” says Bietak."  

"Some 30 ancient Egyptian texts with Exodus parallels or "Exodus-like" content have been identified by 56 Egyptologists, archaeologists, and Semanticists from 1844 to date in professional literature. Additional texts are identified in the present study for a total of more than 90 Egyptian texts containing Exodus parallels".  

The Exodus from Egypt: Text

Brooklyn Papyrus

This papyrus shows the names of several dozen Hebrew (Hyksos) slaves being bought by an Egyptian noblewoman. The link below takes you to the museum details concerning this papyrus.

APXAIOC Institute of Biblical Archaeology
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Archeology concerning the Brooklyn Papyrus

"The verso of the Papyrus is equally intriguing, for it lists seventy-nine servants in a large Dynasty Xlll Egyptian household (ca. 1745 B.C.) of whom forty-five were (mainly Semitic) Asiatics. A few, especiallv the children, bear purely Egyptian names, but most bear Semitic names. Nearly forty of these people actually bear a (usually) Semitic name followed by the epithet 'who-is-called' and a second, Egyptian, name. This provides a powerful contemporary parallel for the construction of Joseph's Egyptian name Zaphenath-Paaneah, (to be the subject of a forthcoming study). One or two names in the Brooklyn list are of special interest. One is identical with the later Hebrew name 'Menahem'. Another is actually a 'Shiphr(ah)', later the name of midwife in Ex. i: 15, who thus bore in her time a name already venerable. A third is etymologically comparable with that of Job. The status of some of these servants is a perfect reflection of Joseph's first status in Potiphar's household. In Gen. xxxix. 2, Joseph is a domestic servant 'in the house'—exactly the status hery-per recorded of Semites and Egyptians in the Brooklyn Papyrus and elsewhere. (Note that this is not an exalted title as Yahuda claimed.) Later, in Gen. xxxix. 4, Joseph rose to be Steward in the household the very common Egyptian title of imy-ra-per."

School of Archaeology and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool.


The Exodus from Egypt: Text

Avaris & Goshen



The Hyksos came from this region as detailed in the secular and creationists research, this has even been proven by DNA sampling (SEE HYSKOS). These were Hebrew people.

Avaris in Goshen


This Semetic archeological site is in Goshen exactly as predicted in the scriptures.  The site is simultaneously attributed to a Semitic people and the Bedouin who are not Semitic but are nomadic dessert dwellers. The Bedouin have no records of building a city in their history. These were Hebrews.

Hyskos in Egypt

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The Smithsonian Magazine tells us that these Hyskos that lived in Avaris were from Levant, this is an archeological name for Israel. This is the DNA research proving them to be Hebrew.

The Exodus from Egypt: Features

Patterns of Evidence

Tim Mahoney walks you through the timeline and reconstructs what we know with Egyptologist David Rohl

The Exodus from Egypt: HTML Embed
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The Ibscha Relief from the tomb of Khnumhotep II,

This shows possible Hebrew slaves being moved and traded.

The Exodus from Egypt: Image

Proof of Hebrew peoples in Ancient Egypt

So often Christians are confronted with "there is o proof of the exodus from Egypt". This is obviously false.

The Pyramid of Joseph

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This is a pyramid placed for a Semetic person (non-Egyptian) as as symbol of power and authority as well as a place of honor to be revered and remembered forever.  This is the only pyramid ever dedicated to a non-pharaoh.  No other pyramid like this has been known to exist.

Harris Papyrus The name of Moses
Pinpointing the Exodus

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Israel Knohl is the Yehezkel Kaufmann Professor of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Here he speaks about the Harris Papyrus translation and even the name of Moses in the text.

The Name of YHWH in ancient Sudan

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Archeologist Titus Kennedy has photographed and documented the name of YHWH This inscription dates to the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, (1550-1292 BC).
This is the earliest known tetragrammaton and establishes Hebrew people in the area far earlier than previously thought.

The Exodus from Egypt: Features

Tales of the Exodus from Joseph to Mt. Sinai

The Exodus narrative is more than the Ten Plagues.  It starts with Joseph and ends with the Ten Commandments. The Symposium here tells us of many Egyptian text and narratives that tell us the same things as the Exodus from the Bible.  From there I will do my best to show as much as I can, again there is simply far too much to include here.

The Exodus from Egypt: Text

Joseph recorded in Egypt

This is your Feature section introductory paragraph. Use this space to present specific credentials, benefits or special features you offer. This is a chance to highlight the unique and valuable aspects that differentiate you from the competition.  From the Bible we learn that Joseph came to Egypt a slave and was sold to Potiphar whos wife attempts to seduce Joseph and he is subsequently thrown into prison. .  There is a stela of Egyptian hieroglyphs telling a very similar tale  The Stela of Potiphar is held at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It is catalogued as Cairo JE 65444.  

7 Year famine

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The Famine Stela tells us the same story as the seven year famine of the Exodus.  Here Joseph is called Djoser This comes from 2700 BC which seems far out of date. Here is an example as to why we can not get accurate dating for Egyptian history.

Josephs Signet Ring in Egypt

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In the various documentaries I have placed here this evidence is among the strongest and most compelling. Not only was this ring found but 5 have been found by Manfred Beitek near the pyramid of Joseph.  Everything about this ring fits with the biblical narrative.  It also fits with Egyptian tradition.
So Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I hereby put you in charge of the whole land of Egypt." Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph's finger. He dressed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. Gen 41

The Bahr Yussef

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Many people see this canal as built by Joseph in the time of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. This correlates with the savior of Egypt during the seven years of famine.  You can tour this today where the guides tell of the building of the canal by Yusef.

The Exodus from Egypt: Features
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Statue of Joseph in the Pyramid at Avaris

In the Hyksos settlement of Avaris we have established as Hebrew people we find a pyramid dedicated to a Semitic leader and the only person in Egyptian history to receive a pyramid, albeit small, that was not a pharaoh. Now if Joseph indeed did interpret the dream & did  save Egypt from the famine causing Egypt to become very powerful. If he did build the canal and did gain such authority as to be given signet rings and did win the heart and favor of pharaoh,  then he would deserve a pyramid and remembrance.  This statue proves not only that Joseph was in Egypt but that he was given the highest honor that could be given.

The Exodus from Egypt: Image

Further evidence

The Exodus from Egypt: Text
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The Exodus from Egypt: Image

Moses' name in hieroglyphs

"The assertion that there are no ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic texts that make mention of the Hebrew Patriarchs Joseph, Moses, and Solomon and the Queen of Sheba is incorrect. There are unmistakable Hieroglyphic texts."  

"The notion that there are no Hieroglyphic texts that identify Joseph, Benjamin, Moses, and Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, is a patent absurdity. These patriarchal figures have been shunted back in time from c 1550 BC to 2600 BC, from c 1350 BC to 2400 BC, and from c 950 BC to 1450 BC, and so on, and as a result they have been obscured."  

Moses In The Hieroglyphs Paperback – January 17, 2006 

 Grant Berkley Trafford on Demand Publishing 

You need to understand something that few archeologists will tell you. Hieroglyphs are very hard to translate accurately.  Moses can be written any one of more than 30 different ways.  

Perhaps the strongest evidence comes from the name Moses itself. You see Moses is not a Hebrew name but the name given to Moses by the daughter of Pharaoh. Now given that the earliest copy of the Exodus comes from about 100 BC. The question then becomes "How did bronze age Semitic people know Moses meant to draw out of water from a language from more than 1600 years earlier?"  "She named him Moses, saying, "I drew him out of the water.".  

In Egyptian this is pronounced as "Moshe".  Now either we have an Egyptian speaking Hebrew who wrote the Exodus much later than 1600 BC of which there is zero evidence of this, or Moses got his name exactly the way and for the reason described in the Bible. These are the only two reasonable options. Do remember that Moses was a Egyptian speaking Hebrew. If this is not the case how did a specific name from 1700 years prior in a different language come to be exactly correct? Consider that 1600 years ago English did not exist as Greek and Latin were the primary languages of Europe. If then the Exodus did not occur we have an Egyptian trained Hebrew writing a text with an Egyptian name that counters the oral tradition sacred to the Hebrew people they have been taught from birth.  

"This was translated from the slab known as Sania 115 dated back to 1842 B.C.E. It is displayed at Harvard's Semitic Museum. This slab identifies Joseph and his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh. It has an inscription "6 Levantines: Hebrews of Bethel, the beloved." 

Petrovich also translated 16 more Hebrew inscriptions from four other ancient slabs found in Egypt and Sinai. This includes a slab dated around 1446 B.C.E. and describes Moses as a person prefigured by the ancient Jews for leading them out of Egypt"

Here we have Dr. Douglas Petrovich, archaeologist and professor of Egyptian History at Wilfrid Laurier University in Ontario telling us he has found the names of Joseph, Ephraim Manasseh and Moses in Hieroglyphics. There are some who scrutinize his work however he maintains that it is definitive, challenging anyone to prove him wrong. No one to date has done so.  

The Exodus from Egypt: Text